Dress code and religious beliefs

Dress code and religious beliefs

Sharia Islamic law does not require women to wear a burqa Arab. Burqas belong to particular areas of the world, where they are considered normal dress.

dress code and religious beliefs

In other parts of the world the dress is totally different. Muslim women are required to observe the hijab in front of any man they could theoretically marry.

This means that hijab is not obligatory in front of the father, brothers, grandfathers, uncles or young children. Hijab does not need to be worn in front of other Muslim women, but there is debate about what can be revealed to non-Muslim women. Modesty rules are open to a wide range of interpretations. Some Muslim women wear full-body garments that only expose the eyes, although there is no Quranic text requiring this extreme.

Some cover every part of the body except their face and hands. Some believe only their hair or their cleavage is compulsory to hide, and others do not observe any special dress rules.

Books on this topic from the Cornell online catalog. How people in Muslim countries prefer women to dress [. Michigan study. How people in Muslim countries prefer women to dress [pew research. Survey on preferred dress for women in Muslim countries. World Hijab Day OrganizationInc.

Policies for Workplace Dress Codes

W hat the hijab means to me: From Nigeria to Uruguay, women share their thoughts and feelings about the hijab. How Muslim-majority countries feel about women's clothing. Dress codes for women in Muslim countries. Hijab Islamic scarf by country [x] www.

dress code and religious beliefs

Unveil yourself! Nike condemned for putting hijab on Iranian mathematician who chose not to wear one. As Muslim women, we ask you not to wear the hijab in the name of interfaith solidarity The authors argue that the Koran does not require women to wear a hijab, but that they are being bullied into covering themselves by conservative Shiite and Sunni sects.

By Asra Q. Turkish women unveiled [? She is now 40, living in Tunisia, and had never been interviewed before. Women in Islam and Muslim Realms: Dress Code Research resources for the study of women in Islam; Islam and its ideology dealing with women, Muslim feminism, dress code, family and marriage, women and gender in Islam, etc. Who Decides? Statistics How people in Muslim countries prefer women to dress [.

Religious Attire

Dress Codes How people in Muslim countries prefer women to dress [pew research. Non-Profit Women and the Islamic Veil: Deconstructing implications of orientalism, state, and feminism through an understanding of performativity, cultivation of piety and identity, and fashion. Thesis, Hofstra ? Gerogia State U.Freedom of speech encompasses religious as well as secular speech, but the Establishment Clause imposes limitations on government endorsement of religion that has important implications for religious speech and observance in public schools.

This does not imply that the public schools may not teach about religion. GrahamU. Schools may teach about religion, explain the tenets of various faiths, discuss the role of religion in history, literature, science and other endeavors, and the like, as long as it has a secular purpose to promote educational goals, and there is no effort to promote or inhibit any religious belief.

School-Sponsored Prayer: Prayer and Bible-reading have long been excluded from the public schools. Engel v. Vitale and School Dist. Schempp Wallace v. Jaffree Jane Doe the Court held that student-led prayer at school-sponsored football games was unconstitutional, because the circumstances implied official endorsement of religion.

While the case leaves open the possibility that student-initiated prayer is permissible under some circumstances, it is clear that schools must exercise care to avoid the appearance of promoting religion. The difficulty in finding the right balance is clear from the split in opinon in the lower courts. Hood v.

Medford Board Of Education3rd Cir. Religious Holidays : Holiday observations in public schools have been a persistent bone of contention in many communities.

Although schools may teach about the religious beliefs underlying religious holidays and may celebrate secular aspects of such holidays, schools may not observe holidays as religious events or promote such observance among their students. Religious Messages: Schools may not permanently display religious messages like the Ten Commandments. Stone v. Graham They may, however, display religious symbols in teaching about religion, as long as they are used as teaching aids on a temporary basis as part of an academic program.

Teaching of evolution : In Epperson v. The decision was reaffirmed in Edwards v. Religious Clothing and Symbols: Religious clothing and symbols, if not disruptive, are a protected form of expression.

Even schools with dress codes ordinarily make an exception for religious articles. Released Time: Students may be dismissed from school for off-campus religious instruction, provided that the schools do not encourage or discourage participation or penalize those who do not attend.

Zorach v. Clauson Use of Public School Facilities by Religious Groups: Under a Supreme Court ruling, public schools that permit their facilities to be used by community groups are not permitted to discriminate against religious groups. Center Moriches School DistrictMembers may download one copy of our sample forms and templates for your personal use within your organization.

Neither members nor non-members may reproduce such samples in any other way e. The latest Society for Human Resource Management SHRM survey on religion finds that a majority of organizational leaders foster a secular work environment even when employees practice a variety of religions. Yet nearly all respondents 98 percent said groups of religiously diverse employees work together cooperatively. One way that organizations convey their sensitivity to employee beliefs is by adapting the work environment to enable employees to practice their beliefs during the workday.

The survey suggests that employers are working to fulfill this obligation in a variety of ways. Respondents also said they offer foods that meet various religion-based dietary needs in their cafeteria or meetings 27 percentmake dress code modifications 17 percentdesignate space for religious practices 15 percent and allow on-site religion-based affinity groups 9 percent.

Most respondents 56 percent offer either paid leave 28 percent or unpaid leave 28 percent for holidays not regularly covered by the organization.

But 44 percent reportedly offer no leave for other holidays. The overwhelming majority of respondents 91 percent reported that the number of religious accommodation requests remained the same over the past 12 months.

Clearly, this is not the case. SHRM research findings suggest that the increased availability of flexible scheduling options such as compressed workweeks and telecommuting might make it possible for some employees to practice their religious beliefs without the need to request a specific accommodation. Balancing Interests. It also can help develop an appreciation for diversity.

This is easier said than done. Employee beliefs and practices can vary widely, even within the same religious faith, making it difficult for employers to respond to requests for accommodation in a fair and consistent manner.

Some of the challenges employers face might be corrected easily through systemic changes. The survey found that just 2 percent of respondents have a separate religious diversity policy.

Forty-nine percent include religious diversity in an overall diversity policy, and an equal number have no written religious diversity policy. Of the respondents that do offer such training, 58 percent added it to their employee training in the past five years and 36 percent added it in the past 12 months.

This might explain why HR involvement in the accommodation process remains high. Raising the Bar. The report provides four key areas in which employers should concentrate their efforts to help balance individual employee needs and the needs of the workplace:.

The best practice is to adopt a distinct religious diversity policy. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. By Rebecca R. Reuse Permissions. Page Content. Provide training and information on religious diversity and inclusivity at the manager level and during orientation and employee training to help employees understand how they can take steps to create a more inclusive environment at work.

Ensure that employees have the flexibility in their schedules and a space for daily religious practices such as prayer. Develop a formal policy on religion that is distinct from a general diversity policy to show employees that their religious beliefs are respected. Religious Accommodations Religion, Belief and Spirituality.While having a dress code can help project a professional image, employers need to be careful that their policies do not open them up to claims of religious or belief discrimination, as Michelle Tudor explains.

Image is very important to a business and it is not unusual for an employer to impose a dress code on its employees. Headscarf cases: what now for employer dress codes? Staff agency for top hotels discriminated against bearded Sikh man. What does the Eweida ruling really mean for employers?

Dress codes can vary depending on the nature of the business; it may be as simple as asking staff to wear formal business attire or providing branded t-shirts or uniforms. In certain sectors, protective clothing is required for health and safety reasons. Some dress codes may prevent employees from wearing jewellery or headwear, and they may also include grooming policies, such as requiring long hair to be pulled back into a ponytail or bun; no facial hair; or no piercings.

The imposition of a dress code is not, in itself, unreasonable. There have been a number of cases over recent years from which employers may learn how to manage this risk. One of the downfalls of the respondent in this case was that it had not explored with its clients the exercise of discretion to relax the rule for Sethi in light of his religious beliefs. That is not to say that a dress code can never be imposed on an employee who objects on grounds of their religion or belief.

An indirect discrimination claim can be challenged if the employer can show it had a legitimate aim and that the requirements of the dress code were a proportionate means of achieving that aim.

A good example of this is the case of Azmi v Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Councilin which Mrs Azmi, a bilingual support worker at a school, alleged that she had been discriminated against when her employer asked her to remove her veil which covered her whole face except for her eyes.

The employment tribunal found the council could objectively justify its policy as its legitimate aim was the need to raise the educational achievements of the children. Asking Mrs Azmi to remove her veil was a proportionate means of achieving that aim, it found. Employers should think carefully about the rationale behind implementing a dress code.

Risk can arise when dress codes are based on personal preferences of how employees should look. The exercise of discretion is also important. Employers should not impose dress codes and grooming requirements rigidly. They need to be mindful that there will be some employees who demonstrate their religious beliefs in their appearance, such as the clothes or jewellery they wear or the way they style their hair. However, if an employer makes a dress code or appearance decision that the employee believes is not in their favour, it needs to identify its legitimate aim and demonstrate why its decision meets this aim.

In this situation, evidence is important. Name required. Email will not be published required. Employers sometimes make the headlines over their policy on staff wearing a poppy in the workplace.

We set out the Post a job Why advertise with us?Historically, schools have exercised much discretion over setting dress codes for students. In the landmark case, Tinker v. School principals learned of the plan and adopted a policy that any student who arrived at school wearing an armband would be asked to remove it.

If students refused, the school would suspend them until they agreed to come to school without an armband. As anticipated, two students, Mary Beth and Christopher Tinker, wore armbands to their schools.

They refused to remove them and were suspended. The students sued. The U. The court quoted an earlier Supreme Court opinion in West Virginia v.

Religious Discrimination and Accommodation in the Federal Workplace

It intended to provide stronger protections for individual rights to the free exercise of religion and to have these protections apply at the federal, state and local levels. Flores, In response, 31 states passed similar protections, whether through enacted laws or court decisions.

Inherent within many of these laws is the right to freely wear religious attire. Religion equity includes the rights of religious minority students and free exercise of religion of all.

Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, enforces federal statutes that prohibit discrimination based on religion in public schools, among other factors. The Civil Rights Division intervened in a case brought by a Muslim girl who was told she could not wear her hijab Hearn and United States v. Muskogee PSD Lower courts have upheld dress codes, including mandatory uniforms, so long as these dress codes are neutral.

These policies must meet three conditions:. Generally speaking, a school dress code cannot prevent a student from expressing religious beliefs. Thus, schools should permit students to wear such items as yarmulkes, turbans and head scarves Anti-Defamation League, School dress codes sometimes define how long male students may wear their hair under grooming provisions.

Some Native American male students have successfully sued in lower courts, asserting that they wear their hair long as part of their religious expression. Courts also have struck down schools banning rosary beads and other religious articles where the schools failed to present a compelling reason.

The role of religious activities observed and practiced in districts and public schools has been one of the most unclear, misinterpreted and misunderstood civil rights issues. All educational settings should provide a welcome, nurturing and educational setting for all students, families and communities regardless of faith or belief.

These educational surroundings should afford a sense of being welcome, valued and safe in all public schools. Public school settings should focus on offering and obtaining an equal quality education, in a religiously-neutral environment. Existing practices vary among districts depending on the diversity of surrounding communities. The fundamental right to religious beliefs, worship and expression practices is guaranteed by the First Amendment, which should equate to school policies providing guidance on the practices and rights of students expressing and exercising their religion.

Schools can take these steps to ensure they do not exceed their authority and discretion in mandating dress codes:. Anti-Defamation League. Haynes, C.Religious dressany attire, accoutrementsand markings used in religious rituals that may be corporate, domestic, or personal in nature. Such dress may comprise types of coverings all the way from the highly symbolic and ornamented eucharistic vestments of Eastern Orthodox Christianity to tattooingscarification, or body painting of members of nonliterate and contemporary tribal societies.

Some types of religious dress may be used to distinguish the priestly from the lay members of a religious group or to signify various orders or ranks within a priesthood.

Some religious communities may require that religious personages e. In theocratic traditions, such as Judaism and Islamreligious sanctions govern what may and may not be worn by members of the community. Religious dress embraces not only what is worn by a prayer leader but also what is worn by the congregation outside as well as inside a place of worship.

In many traditions, habits serve to identify monastic groups. Indeed, in the latter case, the function of religious dress is more akin to heraldry as a form of symbolic identification than to liturgy with its ritualistic symbolic motifs. In a more restricted sense, religious vestments articulate a liturgical language as part of a figurative idiom shared with other religious symbols—e. According to the richness of the liturgical or ritual vocabulary employed, the more feasibly can a symbology of vesture be attempted.

This is especially the case with Eastern Orthodoxywhose predilection for symbolical theology has spread from sacraments to sacramentals and everything associated with worship, including dress.

With allegory paramount in the Middle Agesthe Western church could not escape attributing symbolical values to garments whose origin may have owed little to symbolism. Thus, because the stole is a yoke around the neck of the priest and he should rejoice in his servitude, on donning or doffing it he kisses the emblem of his servile status. The notion of dress as a substitute skin and, hence, as an acquired personality temporarily assumed has been widespread in nonliterate and in tribal religions ; such practices in shamanism have been widely observed in Arctic and Siberian regions.

The celebrant, dressed in her skin, reenacted the same ritual dance to identify with the victim, who was viewed as the goddess. Religious dress may also serve a memorial function. In the Eucharistwhich is both a thanksgiving and a reenactment of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ on Golgothathe chasuble outer garment worn by the celebrant depicts scenes from the Passion on the orphreythe name given to the elaborately embroidered strips stitched on the chasuble.

Jewish vesture, worn only by men, is an amalgam of ancient and modern religious dress.

Dress codes and religious discrimination: what is reasonable?

Originally, sacerdotal dress was probably varied and complex, but, after the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem in 70 ce and the subsequent disappearance of the Temple offices, many garments associated with priestly functions passed into oblivion. Chief among these offices was that of the high priest.

The ephod—an object of much controversy—probably consisted of a wide band of material with a belt to secure it to the body, and it was worn over the other priestly garments. The book of Exodus specifies that it was to be woven of golden and linen threads dyed blue, purple, and scarlet These stones were a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle in the first row; an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond in the second; a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst in the third; and a beryl, an onyx, and a jasper in the fourth.

The identity, sequence, and objects of representation of these stones are matters of controversy.Answers to the main religion or belief questions about dress codes and religious symbols, developed with employers. Yes, they can. Any requests to change a workplace dress code or uniform policy must be considered separately as there may be clothing requirements that relate to some roles and not others.

dress code and religious beliefs

For other roles there may be security justifications for not allowing an employee to wear clothing which makes it hard to verify their identity. If you agree to a change in uniform policy on religious grounds for one person, you do not have to do it for everyone. It is not unlawful direct discrimination to treat people differently if their situations are different. For example, an employer agrees to a change in a uniform policy for a religious employee because otherwise they would be indirectly discriminating against that employee because of their religion.

Another employee asks for the same change to the policy because they find the uniform uncomfortable. The Court of Justice of the European Union CJEU confirmed that a ban which only applies to some religious symbols or dress but not others would be unlawful direct discrimination. However, there are European Law cases which say that a ban on all religious or belief symbols or dress is not necessarily unlawful if it applies equally to all such symbols and dress.

Even though it is likely to disadvantage people who share particular religions which have specific rules about dress or wearing symbols, an employer may be able to objectively justify such a ban. Some European Court cases have suggested that demonstrating neutrality in delivering services may be a legitimate aim and that a headscarf ban can be proportionate in meeting that aim.

However, those cases were about employers in France and Belgium, countries which have a strong constitutional principle of secularism. The constitutional context in Britain is different.

Health and safety reasons can in some cases justify asking an employee to remove a particular symbol or type of dress. But you must be clear why a religious symbol or dress poses a risk to health and safety and ensure you are not discriminating against the employee. If you think you might have been treated unfairly and want further advice, you can contact the Equality Advisory and Support Service.

Also available through the website are BSL interpretation, web chat services and a contact us form. Home Religion or belief in the workplace Religion or belief: dress codes and religious symbols. Pages in this section R Religion or belief Religion or belief: What is it and why is it important? How do I handle employee requests?

Frequently asked questions. Religion or belief: dress codes and religious symbols. Advice and Guidance.

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Es ist schade, dass ich mich jetzt nicht aussprechen kann - ist erzwungen, wegzugehen. Aber ich werde befreit werden - unbedingt werde ich schreiben dass ich denke.

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